Acting on Ecosystem Service Opportunities

Useful Links & References

Useful links

The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) is a global initiative focused on “making nature’s values visible”. Its principal objective is to mainstream the values of biodiversity and ecosystem services into decision-making at all levels.



ValuES –  Integrating  Ecosystem  Services  into  Policy,  Planning  and  Practice is a global project that aids decision-makers in our partner countries in recognizing and integrating ecosystem services into policy making, planning and implementation of specific projects.


The Biodiversity Finance Initiative (BIOFIN) aims to deliver a new methodological framework, facilitating the identification, development and implementation of optimal and evidence-based finance plans and solutions. It has developed an online “catalogue” with a comprehensive list of instruments, tools and strategies that are applicable to the field of biodiversity finance.


The Landscape Investment and Finance Tool (LIFT) comprises of a set of modules that help landscape initiatives define, develop and find finance for their landscape priorities.



The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) conservation tools platform offers conservation databases and tools.




Anyaegbunam, C., Mefalopulos, P. & Moetsabi, T. (2004): Participatory Rural Communication Appraisal. A Handbook. Second Edition. SADC Centre of Communication for Development Harare and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. URL: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/008/y5793e/y5793e00.pdf

Aravamuthan, M., Ruete, M., Dominguez, C. (2015): Credit Enhancement for Green Projects Promoting credit-enhanced financing from multilateral development banks for green infrastructure financing. International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), Winnipeg. URL: https://www.iisd.org/sites/default/files/publications/credit-enhancement-green-projects.pdf (accessed July 2018)

Ash, N., Blanco, H., Brown, C., Garcia, K., Henrichs, T., Lucas, N., Raudsepp-Hearne, C., Simpson, R.D., Scholes, R., Tomich, T.P., Vira, B. & Zurek, M. (eds.) (2010): Ecosystems and Human Well-being: A Manual for Assessment Practitioners, Washington, D.C. URL: http://www.unep-wcmc.org/resources-and-data/ecosystems-and-human-wellbeing--a-manual-for-assessment-practitioners

Asia Forest Network (2002): Participatory Rural Appraisal for Community Forest Management. Tools and Techniques, Santa Barbara. URL: http://www.myfirecommunity.net/discussionimages/NPost8219Attach1.pdf

BBOP – Business and Biodiversity Offsets Programme (2012): BBOP Standard on Biodiversity Offsets and associated material, Washington, D.C. URL: http://bbop.forest-trends.org/pages/guidelines

BBOP – Business and Biodiversity Offsets Programme (2012): Glossary. BBOP, Washington, D.C. URL: http://bbop.forest-trends. org/guidelines/Updated_Glossary

BIOFIN (2018): Catalogue of Finance Solutions. URL: http://biodiversityfinance.net/finance-solutions (accessed July 2018)

Brown, J. & Bird, N. (2011): Sustainable natural resource management in Namibia: Successful community-based wildlife conservation. Overseas Development Institute, London. URL: http://www.odi.org/publications/5185-namibia-environmen- tal-management-wildlife-conservation-development-progress

CAPE (2009): Biodiversity Fiscal Incentives: A Framework on Fiscal Incentives for Biodiversity. Cape Action for People and the Environment, Claremont. URL: https://www.cbd.int/doc/meetings/im/wscbteeb-mena-01/other/wscbteeb-mena-01-biodi- v&fiscal-incentives-en.pdf

Centre for Social Responsibility in Mining (2014): Mongolia’s mining boom raises environment concerns, The University of Queensland, Australia. URL: https://www.csrm.uq.edu.au/news/http-www-dw-de-mongolias-mining-boom-raises-envi- ronment-concerns-a-17534285

CFA – Conservation Finance Alliance (2008): Business Planning for Protected Areas, Gland. URL: http://conservationfinance.org/guide/guide/

Chambers, W. B. & Toth, F. L. (2005): Typology of Responses (Chapter 2). In: Chopra, K. et. al. (Ed.): Ecosystems and hu-man well-being, Vol. 3: Policy Responses, Findings of the Responses Working Group (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Series), Chicago. URL: http://www.maweb.org/documents/document.307.aspx.pdf

CICES – The Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (2015): Towards a common classification of ecosystem services. URL: http://cices.eu/

Clements, T., John, A., Nielsen, K., An, D., Tan, S. & Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2010): Payments for biodiversity conservation in the con-text of weak institutions: comparison of three programs from Cambodia, Ecological Economics, 69: 1283–1291

CMP – Conservation Measures Partnership (2015): The Open Standards for the Practice of Conservation. URL: http://cmp-open- standards.org/

Community Tool Box (2014): Section 8. Identifying and Analyzing Stakeholders and Their Interests, Work Group for Community Health and Development at the University of Kansas. URL: http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/participation/encouraging-involvement/identify-stakeholders/main

Conservation International (2014): Verde Ventures. Investing in sustainable businesses. URL: http://www.conservation.org/pro- jects/Pages/Verde-Ventures.aspx

Cordato, R.E. (2010): The Polluter Pays Principle: A Proper Guide for Environmental Policy, Institute for Research on the Eco-nomics of Taxation Studies in Social Cost, Regulation, and the Environment: No. 6, Washington. URL: http://iret.org/pub/SCRE-6.PDF

CPIC and PwC (2018), CONSERVATION INVESTMENT BLUEPRINTS: A Development Guide, http://cpicfinance.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/CPIC_Blueprint_Development_Guide_2018.pdf (accessed August 2018)

Dreschler, M. & Wätzold, F. (2007): Applying tradable permits to biodiversity conservation: Effects of space-dependent conservation benefits and cost heterogeneity on habitat allocation, Ecological Economics, 68: 1083-1092. URL: http://www. sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S092180090800342X

Dudley, N. & Stolton, S. (2009): The Protected Areas Benefits Assessment Tool. A methodology, WWF – World Wide Fund for Nature, Gland. URL: http://wwf.panda.org/?174401/PABAT

Dudley, N. (2015): Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories. IUCN, Gland. URL: https://www.iucn.org/sites/dev/files/import/downloads/iucn_assignment_1.pdf (accessed July 2018)

Eco-Label Index (2014): Glossary. URL: http://www.ecolabelindex.com/glossary/#E

Emerton, L. & Bos, E. (2004): Value. Counting Ecosystems as an Economic Part of Water Infrastructure. Gland and Cam-bridge: IUCN. URL: http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/value_en.pdf

Emerton, L. & Nlom, J-H. (2011): Congo Basin Protected Area Systems: Environmental Economic Context. Yaoundé: WWF Central Africa Regional Programme Office

Emerton, L. (1998): Using Economics for Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans in Eastern Africa. Nairobi: IUCN Eastern Africa Regional Office. URL: http://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/1998-071.pdf

Emerton, L. (2008): Opportunities to improve sustainable PA financing mechanisms and encourage sustainable livelihoods in the Lower Volga. UNDP/GEF Project “Conservation of Wetland Biodiversity in the Lower Volga”, Volgograd

Emerton, L. (2010a): Environmental financing mechanisms for watershed management solutions in Cambodia, Lao PDR and Viet Nam. MRC – GTZ Cooperation Programme Watershed Management Project (WSMP), GIZ and Mekong River Commission, Vientiane

Emerton, L. (2010b): Lower Amu Darya State Biosphere Reserve: Business Plan 2011–2015. GEF/UNDP PIMS 2109: Conservation of Tugai Forest and Strengthening Protected Areas System in the Amu Darya Delta of Karakalpakstan, Nukus

Emerton, L. (2012): Rethinking Economics, Markets and Incentives: using economic tools at the landscape level. Gland: IUCN. URL: http://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/2012-023.pdf

Emerton, L., Phạm Xuân Phương & Hà Thị Mừng (2011): PA financing mechanisms in Viet Nam: lessons learned and future directions. Report prepared for GIZ/MARD Project “Conservation of Biodiversity in Forest Ecosystems in Vietnam”, Hanoi

Equator Initiative (2015): Equator Initiative Case Study Database. URL: http://equatorinitiative.org/index.php?option=com_ winners&view=casestudysearch&Itemid=685&lang=en (last access: 07/21/2015)

Erdmann, M.V., Merrill, P.R., Arsyad, I. & Mongdong, M. (2003): Developing a diversified portfolio of sustainable financing options for Bunaken National Marine Park. Paper presented at the workshop Building a Complex Portfolio to Sustainably Finance Marine Protected Area Networks, Vth World Parks Congress: Sustainable Finance Stream, Durban. URL: http://conser- vation-finance.org/guide/WPC/WPC_documents/Apps_01_Erdmann_v1.pdf

FAO - EAF-Net (2011): EAF Planning and Implementation Tools. Stakeholder Workshops. In: EAF-Net (2011): EAF Toolbox, EAF Planning and Tool selection, Consultation tools, Rome. URL: http://www.fao.org/fishery/eaf-net/eaftool/eaf_tool_3

FAO (2002): Land Tenure and Rural Development. FAO Land Tenure Studies 3, Rome. URL: http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/ y4307e/y4307e09.htm

Ferraro, P.J. & Kiss, A. (2002): Direct Payments to Conserve Biodiversity. Science Compass, Policy Forum: Ecology, 298: 1718–1719. URL: http://www.ecnc.org/uploads/documents/direct-payments-to-conserve-biodiversity.pdf

Forest Trends, Katoomba Group & UNEP (2008): Payments for Ecosystem Services: Getting Started. A Prime, Nairobi. URL: http:// www.unep.org/pdf/PaymentsForEcosystemServices_en.pdf

Frogleaps (2013): Tool: Understanding your target audiences. URL: http://www.frogleaps.org/tools/Tool_Understanding_target_audiences.pdf (accessed December 2017)

Giuliani, A., Abdulkarim, N. & Buer, M. (2006): Linking Biodiversity Products to Markets to improve the Livelihoods of the Resource Poor: Case Study on the Market Chain of Capers in Syria, Proceedings of the Regional Consultation on Linking Producers to Markets: Lessons Learned and Successful Practices, Cairo. URL: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/228477721_Link- ing_biodiversity_products_to_markets_to_improve_the_livelihoods_of_the_resource_poor_Case_study_on_the_mar- ket_chain_of_capers_in_Syria

GIZ, UFZ & CSF (2014): ValuES – Methods for integrating ecosystem services into policy, planning, and practice. URL: http:// aboutvalues.net/

Gole, C., Burton, M., Williams, K. J., Clayton, H., Faith, D. P., White, B., Huggett, A. & Margules, C. (2005): Auction for Landscape Recovery Final Report. WWF, Sydney. URL: http://awsassets.wwf.org.au/downloads/wa013_auction_for_landscape_recov- ery_1oct05.pdf

Hanley, N., Banerjee, S., Lennox, G.D. & Armsworth, P.R. (2012): How should we incentivize private land-owners to ‘produce’ more biodiversity? Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 28(1): 93–113. URL: http://oxrep.oxfordjournals.org/content/28/1/93.full

Harvey, B., Ensor, J., Garside, B., Woodend, J., Naess, L. O., Carlile, L. (2013): Social learning in practice:  A review of lessons, impacts and tools for climate change adaptation.  CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), Copenhagen. URL: https://cgspace.cgiar.org/rest/bitstreams/22997/retrieve (accessed July 2018)

Hawkins, S. (2011): Laying the Foundation: An Analytical Tool for Assessing Legal and Institutional Readiness for PES. URL: http://www.forest-trends.org/documents/files/doc_3014.pdf

Hesselink, F., Goldstein, W., van Kempen, P.P., Garnett, T. & Dela, J. (2007): Communication, Education and Public Awareness (CEPA). A Toolkit for National Focal Points and NBSAP Coordinators. Montreal: Convention on Biological Diversity and IUCN. URL: http://www.frogleaps.org/downloads/cepa_toolkit_english.pdf



Huxham, M., Kairo, J., Skov, M., Hillams, T., Nunan, F. & Mencuccini, M. (2012): Marketing the mangroves: can carbon payments make conservation work? Paper presented at Meeting on mangrove Ecology, Functioning and Management, Galle

Iftikhar, U. (2004): Personal Communication; Khan, S.R., & Parvaiz, A.N. (2001): National Case Study on the Integration of Economics into Pakistan’s Biodiversity Action Plan. IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Pakistan Country Programme: Karachi. URL: http://www.eldis.org/go/home&id=70184&type=Document#.VajUZWMTV4M

Kettunen, M. & ten Brink, P. (eds.) (2013): Social and Economic Benefits of Protected Areas: An Assessment Guide, Routledge.

Kosmus, M., Renner, I. & Ullrich, S. (2012): Integrating Ecosystem Services into Development Planning – a stepwise approach for practitioners based on the TEEB approach.  Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), Eschborn. URL: http:// www.aboutvalues.net/data/six_steps/giz_2012_en_integr_ecosys_serv_in_dev_planning.pdf

Kram, M., Bedford, C., Durnin, M., Luo, Y., Rokplelnis, K., Roth, B., Smith, N., Wang., Y., Yu, G., Yu, Q. & Zhao, X. (2012): Protecting China’s Biodiversity – A Guide to Land Use, Land Tenure, and Land Protection Tools, The Nature Con-servancy (TNC), Beijing. URL: http://www.nature.org/media/china/chinabook-wholebook-lowres.pdf

Kuusela, O.-P., Amacher, G. S. (2016): A Review of Performance Bonding in Forest Policy Settings. Oregon. URL: https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs40725-016-0043-y.pdf (accessed July 2018)

Landell-Mills, N. & Porras, I.T. (2002): Silver bullet or fools’ gold? A global review of markets for forest environmental services and their impact on the poor. International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London. URL: https://www.cbd. int/doc/external/iied/iied-silver-report-2002-en.pdf

Latham, J.E., Trivedi, M., Amin, R., D’Arcy, L. (2014): A Sourcebook of Biodiversity Monitoring for REDD+. Zoological Society of London, London. URL: https://www.zsl.org/sites/default/files/media/2014-10/ZSL_GIZ_REDD_Sourcebook_2014_0.pdf (accessed December 2017)

Le Quesne, T. & McNally, R. (2005): The Green Buck: Using economic tools to deliver conservation goals: a WWF field guide. The WWF Sustainable Economics Network, World Wide Fund for Nature UK, Godalming. URL: https://www.cbd.int/financial/doc/ several-several-wwf.pdf

Loft, L., Gebara, M. F., Wong, G. Y. (2016): The experience of ecological fiscal transfers: Lessons for REDD+ benefit sharing. CIFOR, Bogor. URL: http://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/OccPapers/OP-154.pdf (accessed July 2018)

MA – Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005): Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Current State and Trends, Volume 1, Washington, D.C. URL: http://www.millenniumassessment.org/en/Global.html

Malaysian Green Technology Corporation (2012): Green Technology Financing Scheme (GTFS). URL: https://www.gtfs.my/

May. P., Veiga Neto, F., Denardin, V. & Loureiro, W. (2002): Using Fiscal Instruments to Encourage Conservation: Municipal Responses to the ‘Ecological’ Value-added Tax in Paraná and Minais Gerais, Brazil. In: Pagiola, S., Bishop, J. & Landell-Mills, N. (eds): Selling Forest Environmental Services: Market-Based Mechanisms for Conservation and Development, London. URL: http://www.ecosystemmarketplace.com/pages/dynamic/resources.library.page.php?page_id=794&section=water_mar- ket&eod=1

MCE Social Capital (2012): Philanthropic Guarantee Agreement. San Francisco. URL: http://www.mcesocap.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/MCE-PGA-July-2012-Edition.pdf (accessed December 2017)

Morrison, A. & Aubrey, W. (2010): Payments for Ecosystem Services Literature Review: A review of lessons learned, and a frame- work for assessing PES feasibility, World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF). URL: http://www.planvivo.org/wp-content/up- loads/Framework-for-PES-feasibility_WWF_MorrisonAubrey_2010.pdf

MWHCB Inc. (2012): MaluaBioBank. URL: http://www.maluabiobank.com/index.html

Nabangchang, O., Seenprachawong, U., Janamporn, S., Suthat, K., Thongsopin, K. & Marchant, R. (2012): Sustainable Financing Strategy & Business Plan for Lanta, Similan and Surin Islands Marine National Parks. Report prepared for Strengthening Andaman Marine Protected Areas Network (SAMPAN) Project, International Union for Conserva-tion of Nature (IUCN) Thailand Programme, Bangkok.

Nelson, N. (2008): Making Wildlife Pay in Northern Tanzania, Ecosystem Marketplace. URL: http://www.ecosystemmarketplace. com/pages/dynamic/article.page.php?page_id=5934&section=home&eod=1

Northern Rangeland Trust (2014): NRT State of Conservancies Report 2014, Kenya. URL: http://www.nrt-kenya.org/wp-content/ uploads/2015/06/SoC_Final_LowRes_SinglePages.pdf

OECD (2001): Measuring Capital – OECD Manual: Measurement of capital stocks, consumption of fixed capital and capital services. URL: http://www.oecd.org/std/na/1876369.pdf

OECD (2003): Harnessing Markets for Biodiversity. Towards Conservation and Sustainable Use. URL: http://portals.wi.wur.nl/ files/docs/File/nfp%20for%20all/FinancingMech/OECDHarnessingMarketsforBiodiversity.pdf

OECD (2005): Glossary of Statistical Terms. URL: http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/index.htm

OECD (2011): Environmental Taxation. A Guide for Policy Makers.URL: http://www.oecd.org/env/tools-evaluation/48164926.pdf

Office of Policy, Economics, and Innovation and Office of Water (2005): Applying lessons learned from wetlands mitiga-tion banking to water quality trading. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. URL: http://www.eli.org/sites/ default/files/docs/lansiemstedshab05.pdf

Oli, K.P., Dasgupta, J., Dhakal, T.D. & Kollmair, M. (2007): Glossary of Access and Benefit Sharing Terms. ICIMOD, Kathmandu. URL: http://www.icimod.org/?q=2242

Pedro, A. F. P., Stump, D. (2012): Environmental licensing in 'Getting to Green'. World Bank, Washington D.C. URL: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTRANETENVIRONMENT/Resources/2443511279901011064/EnvironmentalLicensing.pdf (accessed July 2018)

Plan Vivo Foundation (2012): Plan Vivo Guidance Manual 2.0 for designing and implementing payments for ecosystem service programmes with rural communities. The Waterloo Foundation, Edinburgh. URL: http://www.planvivo.org/docs/Plan-Vivo-Guidance-Manual.pdf

Pollard, E.H.B., Win Hlaing, S. & Pilgrim, J.D. (2014): Review of the Taninthayi Nature Reserve Project as a conservation model  in Myanmar. The Biodiversity Consultancy, Cambridge. URL: http://www.thebiodiversityconsultancy.com/wp-content/up- loads/2014/11/TNRP-review_TBC-20141.pdf

Rainforest Alliance (2012): Avoided Deforestation in the Coffee Forest in El Salvador, El Salvador. URL: http://www.rainforest-al- liance.org/climate/validation-verification/projects/banco-desarrollo-avoided-deforestation

REMA & PEI (2010): A Review of Existing and Potential Environmental Fiscal Reforms and other Economic Instruments in Rwanda. UNDP-UNEP Poverty-Environment Initiative, Kigali. URL: http://www.unpei.org/sites/default/files/e_library_docu- ments/A_REVIEW_OF_EXISTING_%20AND_POTENTIAL_%20ENVIRONMENTAL_%20FISCAL_%20REFORMS_%20AND_%20 OTHER_%20ECONOMIC_%20INSTRUMENTS_%20IN%20RWANDA.pdf

Rosales, R.M.P. (2003): Developing Pro-poor Markets for Environmental Services in the Philippines. International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London. URL: https://www.cbd.int/financial/pes/philippines-pespoor.pdf

Shames, S., Scherr, S. (2015): Scaling Up Investment & Finance for Integrated Landscape Management: Challenges & Innovations. EcoAgriculture Partners, Washington D.C. URL: https://ecoagriculture.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Finance-whitepaper-web.pdf (accessed July 2018)

Shames, S., Scherr, S., den Besten, J. W. (2017): Landscape Investment and Finance Tool (LIFT). Ecoagriculture Partners and IUCN NL, Washington D.C. URL: https://liftkit.info (accessed July 2018)

Sinca Noua Foundation & Stroming Ltd (2005): A Policy Field Guide to Sinca Noua and the Tagla Mountains: Building a New, Sus- tainable Economy. Report commissioned by WWF, Stroming Ltd, Nijmegen. URL: http://www.stroming.nl/pdf/sincanoua.pdf

Smith, S., Rowcroft, P., Everard, M., Couldrick, L., Reed, M., Rogers, H., Quick, T., Eves, C. & White, C. (2013): Payments for Ecosystem Services: A Best Practice Guide. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London. URL: https://www.gov.uk/ government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/200920/pb13932-pes-bestpractice-20130522.pdf

Soejarto, D., Gyllenhaal, C., Fong, H., Xuan, L., Hiep, N., Hung, N., Bich, T., Southavong, B., Sydara, K. & Pezzuto, J. (2004): The UIC ICBG (University of Illinois at Chicago International Cooperative Biodiversity Group) Memorandum of Agreement: A Model of Benefit-Sharing Arrangement in Natural Products Drug Discovery and Devel-opment. Journal of Natural Products, 67: 294-299. URL: https://www.cbd.int/financial/bensharing/several-icbd2004.pdf

Sovinc, A. (2005): Management of Protected Areas: Alternative Models. Project CAMP Slovenia, Seča. URL: http://www.docstoc. com/docs/24173783/MANAGEMENT-OF-PROTECTED-AREAS-Alternative-Models

Spergel, B. & Taïeb, P. (2008): Rapid Review of Conservation Trust Funds. Conservation Finance Alliance, Working Group on Environmental Funds, Washington D.C. URL: https://www.cbd.int/financial/trustfunds/g-rapidassess.pdf

Stolton, S., Redford, K. H.,Dudley, N. (2014): The Futures of Privately Protected Areas. IUCN, Gland. URL: https://portals.iucn.org/library/sites/library/files/documents/PATRS-001.pdf (accessed July 2018)

Stoneham, g., Chaudhri, V., Ha, A., Strappazzon, L. (2003): Auctions for conservation contracts: an empirical examination of Victoria's BushTender trial. Melbourne. URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1467-8489.2003.t01-1-00224.x (accessed July 2018)

Tchiofo Lontsi, R. (2008): Potentialities for payment mechanisms for environmental services in the Congo Basin forests: the case of biodiversity conservation. Thesis presented for the degree of MSc student in Tropical and International Forestry, Faculty of Forest Science and Wood Ecology, Georg-August University, Goettingen. URL: http://agritrop.cirad.fr/550052/1/ document_550052.pdf

TEEB – The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (2010): The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity for Local and Regional Policy Makers. London

TEEB – The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (2012a): The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity in Local and Regional Policy and Management. Edited by Heidi Wittmer and Haripriya Gundimeda. London

TEEB – The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (2012b): The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity in Business and Enterprise. Edited by Joshua Bishop. London

TEEBcase by Almack K., Chatreaux M. based on D’Agens et al. (2009): Community forestry for public health, Nepal (2010). URL: http://www.teebweb.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Community-forestry-for-public-health-Nepal.pdf

TEEBcase by Almack, K. (2010): Restoring Ecosystem Services to Prevent Flood Damage In Napa River Basin. URL: http://www. teebweb.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/River-restoration-to-avoid-flood-damage-USA.pdf

TEEBcase by Hayashi, K. (2010): Forest environmental tax, Japan. URL: http://www.teebweb.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/ Forest-environmental-tax-Japan.pdf

TEEBcase by Hayashi, K., Nishimiya, H. (2010): PES for habitat restoration to reintroduce Oriental White Stork, Japan. URL: http:// www.teebweb.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Reintroduction-of-Oriental-White-Stork-through-PES-for-habitat-resto- ration-Japan.pdf

TEEBcase by Mbak, E. (2010): Cidanau Watershed PES scheme, Indonesia. URL: http://www.teebweb.org/wp-content/up- loads/2013/01/Cidanau-Watershed-PES-scheme-Indonesia.pdf

TEEBcase by Morrison, A. (2010): Enhancing Carbon offsets for sustainable land use, Scolel Te, Mexico. URL: http://www.teeb- web.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Carbon-offsets-for-sustainable-land-use-Scolel-Te-Mexico.pdf

TEEBcase by Nishimiya, H. (2010): Flooding rice paddies for migrating birds, Japan. URL: http://www.teebweb.org/wp-content/ uploads/2013/01/Flooding-rice-paddies-for-migrating-birds-Japan.pdf

TEEBcase by Redondo-Brenes, A., Welsh, K. (2010): Procuencas Project, Costa Rica. URL: http://www.teebweb.org/wp-content/ uploads/2013/01/Procuencas-Project-Costa-Rica.pdf

TEEBcase by Rodricks, S. mainly based on Department of Environment Climate Change and Water 2009 & Mamouney et al. 2009 (2010): Biodiversity banking and offset scheme of New South Wales (NSW), Australia. URL: http://img.teebweb.org/wp-con- tent/uploads/2013/01/Biodiversity-Banking-and-Offset-scheme-New-South-Wales-Australia.pdf

TEEBcase by Rodricks, S. mainly based on Snow Leopard Trust (2010): Insurance scheme to protect Snow Leopards. URL: http:// www.teebweb.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Insurance-scheme-to-protect-Snow-Leopards.pdf

TEEBcase by van Beukering, P., Cesar, H. (2010): Recreational value of coral reefs, Hawaii. URL: http://www.teebweb.org/wp-con- tent/uploads/2013/01/Recreational-value-of-coral-reefs-Hawaii.pdf

ten Kate, K., Treweek, J. & Ekstrom, J. (2010a): The use of market-based instruments for biodiversity protection – The case of habitat banking. Technical Report for European Commission DG Environment, London. URL: http://www.ieep.eu/assets/472/ eftec_habitat_banking_technical_report.pdf

ten Kate, K., Treweek, J. & Ekstrom, J. (2010b): The use of market-based instruments for biodiversity protection – Habitat Bank- ing case studies. Technical Report for European Commission DG Environment, London. URL: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/enveco/pdf/eftec_habitat_case_study.pdf

The Convention on Biological Diversity (2001): Mobilizing Funding For Biodiversity Conservation: A User-Friendly Training Guide: Tourism User Fees. Montreal. URL: https://www.cbd.int/doc/nbsap/finance/Guide_Tourism_Nov2001.pdf (accessed July 2018)

The Latvian Country Tourism Association (2005): The Green Certificate. Latvian Environment Protection Fund. URL: http://eco. celotajs.lv/pn/index.php?module=ContentExpress&func=display&meid=6&ceid=11

The Natural Capital (2012): InVEST – Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs. URL: http://invest.ecoinformatics.org

The World Bank (1998): Guidelines for Monitoring and Evaluation for Biodiversity Projects. Global Environment Division. Washington, D.C. URL: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTBIODIVERSITY/214584-1110959186651/20611829/270310Guid- lines0for0monitoring.pdf

Tiraa, A. & Wilmott, I. (2001): The Takitumu Conservation Area: a community-owned ecotourism enterprise in the Cook Islands. Industry and Environment 243(4): 42–45. URL: https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/item/5057885de4b01ad7e0281497

TNC – The Nature Conservancy (2007): Conservation Action Planning Handbook. Developing Strategies, Taking Action and Measuring Success at Any Scale, Arlington

UNDP (2009): Handbook on Planning, Monitoring and Evaluating for Development Results: 2.2 Stakeholder engagement. URL: http://web.undp.org/evaluation/handbook/ch2-2.html

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Step 1:



Step 3:


ecosystem service opportunities

Step 2:

Scoping the

context &


Step 4:




Step 6:


and agreeing

on the instrument

Step 5:


out the


Step 7: